Toddler tips for COVID rapid antigen tests

At this stage in the COVID-19 epidemic, it is hardly an understatement to say that at-home COVID rapid antigen tests are difficult to come by. However, after you’ve located them, the task isn’t over. 

It is not as straightforward as it seems to administer a COVID rapid antigen tests accurately to oneself… Medicine’s considerably more difficult to administer it to a squirmy 4-year-old. Include the fact that we are inserting adult-sized swabs into their small noses, which is a painful truth of which they are all too aware. 

Overall, this implies that there are simply too many opportunities to make a mistake throughout the rapid antigen tests, with not swabbing far enough back in the nose and not properly interpreting your findings being the most prominent. Fortunately, the tests come with straightforward instructions, and Christina Johns, MD, a pediatrician and senior medical adviser at PM Pediatrics, provides further guidance on how to do an at-home COVID rapid antigen tests in the section below.

Tip #1: It has to be rather extensive.

If you wish to do a COVID rapid antigen tests correctly, it will be unpleasant for your children. Because the nasopharynx, or the area where the upper portion of the neck joins the nose, is one of the areas where the coronavirus actively replicates, it is critical to get a sample of mucus from deep inside the nasal cavity during the examination. The good news is that, although nasal swabs are uncomfortable, the notion that they puncture the brain is unfounded – there are no brain bleeds in this setting.

The whole cotton tip of the swab should be placed into the nose when rapid antigen test at home, and the guidelines should be followed to the letter, adds Johns. Directions for using the swab will be supplied with the tests, and they will involve twirling it around the nose for at least a few seconds and, in some cases, a certain number of twirls.

A more robust sample may be acquired when the swab is swirled around. As Johns explains, “the more of a specimen is collected, the more accurate the findings will be.”

Tip #2: Do not use a Throat Swab… For the time being,

New research, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, suggests that saliva swabs are the most efficient method of identifying Omicron because the virus infects and multiplies more successfully in the airways that go from the lungs to the throat than in other areas of the body. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is advising individuals to simply swab their nostrils at this time.

Nasal swabs were used in the development and study of the at-home tests accessible in the United States. In addition, it’s more than fair to suppose that shoving an unclean swab down your child’s throat is not a smart idea, both because you don’t know what you’re doing and because you’re more than likely to injure them. After that, good luck with attempting to rapid antigen tests your child again.

In addition, when you swab your throat in addition to your nose, you increase the likelihood that you’ll contaminate your sample. If you’re thinking of getting a throat swab, leave it to the specialists.

Tip #3: Maintain complete stillness.

There is just one size of COVID rapid antigen tests swabs on the market, which is inconvenient for children who have, you guessed it, kid-sized noses. So, although it’s reasonable that your child’s first impulse is to flee when the nose swab is brought out, it’s vital for sample collection and safety that they maintain their head stability during the rapid antigen tests process.

Encourage your kid to breathe deeply with you as you swab their nasal passages, and count out loud as you do so. This will help you harness the power of coregulation. Maintain easy access to any objects they use for self-soothing, such as a blanket or stuffed animal, by placing them nearby.

While swabbing the nose, I advise them to stand up against a wall. “This prevents them from pulling or tilting their head back,” Johns explains.

Though the use of constraint may be essential, she points out that positive reinforcement may drive children to remain still and help them recover more quickly after being subjected to an examination. “When the activity is completed, now is the moment to provide enjoyable, positive incentives, such as special time with a parent or a delicious treat. “Any positive incentive that may be used to make the task more bearable is well worthwhile!” learn some more tips on Rapid Antigen Test at

Tip #4: A faint line is still a line, no matter how faint it is.

The presence of even a thin line should be considered good, according to Johns, particularly in the case of those who are experiencing symptoms. Contact your local health department as soon as you see even the slightest suggestion of a line so that they can record your result for official tallies and offer up-to-date information on how you can isolate yourself. In addition to providing local health authorities with a more accurate picture of how widespread COVID is in your region, this step also helps reduce the chance of COVID spreading farther afield.

Inform everybody with whom you have had regular contact that you have tested positive as soon as possible. In addition, notify your doctor so that they can assess your case and advise you on what to do throughout your recuperation to make it as pain-free as possible.

Take some food with you.

Because the area wasn’t very well signposted, we needed plenty of snacks while we attempted to locate the testing center. After that, you’ll need peace and quiet for a few minutes while you read the instructions carefully (which is why having a helper is so helpful), as well as something to keep you entertained while you’re trying to seal the bottle. If you have more than one child, this is much more important.

Urgent tips on rapid antigen tests

Pediatric Covid instances are springing up all across Alabama now that school has resumed and many of the students are not yet able to get their vaccinations. Furthermore, although children have been less impacted by COVID-19 than adults, they may and do get infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, with some having serious sickness and long-lasting consequences. Many youngsters in the Huntsville region are being exposed at school, which is leading to an increase in the need for pediatric Covid rapid antigen tests across North Alabama and the Southeast.

Urgent Care for Children offers two sites in the area – one on Carl T. Jones Drive in Huntsville and another on Highway 72 in Madison – to serve the needs of the community. The following choices will be available to parents that need a COVID rapid antigen tests for their children in a short amount of time:

  • Antigen testing (results in 15-45 minutes)
  • PCR rapid antigen tests (results in 3-5 days)
  • Antibody rapid antigen tests (results in 3-5 days) (results in 15-45 minutes)

Children’s Children Require Immediate Attention Covid Rapid antigen tests Suggestions

Children who have had their blood tested have expressed a great deal of fear and anxiety, and the subject of testing has been in the news nonstop for more than a year. Children may have heard horror tales about having their “brain swabbed,” or they may be concerned about the procedure being uncomfortable.

The following is an interview with Erin Percy, CRNP and Clinical Director of Urgent Care for Children in Madison, Wisconsin, regarding how parents may assist their children in the event that they need a COVID-19 examination.

Providing assistance to children during the COVID-19 examination

Brain Swabbing as opposed to Gentle Swabbing

When Covid was first established, being tested was often referred to as “brain swabbing” due to the fact that the swab reached so deep into the nasal cavity. Urgent Care for Children, on the other hand, employs a gentle swabbing technique. learn more about brain swabbing by clicking here

“We gently swab the base of the nose, generally using two swabs each rapid antigen tests,” says the doctor. Children who have come to Urgent Care for Children for Covid rapid antigen tests are often amazed by how simple and painless the procedure is. “Most youngsters say it doesn’t hurt – they describe it as a tickling sensation – and that it doesn’t last more than a few seconds.”

Whenever rapid antigen tests come back negative, we suggest sending the sample out for a PCR test just to be sure. If you do not have symptoms or if you have been exposed for more than five days, a PCR rapid antigen tests is the best option.” Percy also claims that the Delta strain of Covid-19 presents as asymptomatic only in rare instances. learn more about PCR test at

In order to assist children to overcome their fear of the unknown, they must be well prepared before they have a Covid examination. The following was some excellent advice from Percy Jackson for parents and caregivers dealing with their child’s fears:

  • Inform your kid ahead of time that they will be tested; do not keep them in the dark about this.
  • Before you travel, practice using a Q-tip at home first. They’re even bigger than the actual swabs themselves!
  • Maintain confidence in your students by assuring them that the exam itself will just take a few seconds.
  • We’re not beyond bribing — Urgent Care for Children offers popsicles, lollipops, juice, stickers, and anything else it takes to convince your child to come in for their rapid antigen tests.

If you have a baby who has been exposed and is showing signs of illness, the rapid antigen tests procedure is the same as described above. “So far, our youngest Covid rapid antigen tests subject was 6 weeks old,” Percy said of the company’s youngest patient.

Making an appointment for a Covid rapid antigen tests at Urgent Care for Children

You should schedule a Covid rapid antigen tests appointment as soon as you are aware of a Covid exposure at your kid’s school or as soon as your child begins to show signs of Covid exposure. Make an appointment for Urgent Care for Children in Huntsville or Madison HERE, and learn more about the procedure in the process section of the website. Parents should be aware that most Urgent Care lobbies are closed, and patients will be required to wait in their vehicles. Wait times have been quite long at all rapid antigen tests sites in North Alabama recently, so it’s best to arrive early and be prepared.

In order to ensure that their vehicles have enough petrol, I’m advising families to have a fully charged phone. Bring something to pass the time while you’re waiting in your vehicle. And, unless you are experiencing really significant symptoms, do not go to the emergency room for a test. Children with mild to moderate symptoms or those who are not in respiratory distress are not being tested in the Emergency Rooms of local hospitals.” In other words, don’t go to the ER unless you believe you or your kid should be admitted to the hospital immediately.

Urgent Care for Children is thrilled to be the nation’s first sensory inclusive pediatric urgent treatment clinic, providing care to children with autism or sensory processing disorders. The sensory accommodations available at all Urgent Care for Children locations are designed to help patients who react better to a calmer, more secure setting. The physicians, nurse practitioners, and other medical professionals on the Urgent Care for Children team have received special training on how to react to pediatric patients who have sensory issues and how to alter their treatment strategy to meet those needs.

My child was subjected to a Covid rapid antigen tests. What Happens Next?

Many families are anxious about returning to their normal activities or visiting family members after their children have been tested for infectious diseases. Percy claims that the majority of people are unsure of what to do next.

“We suggest a 10- to 14-day period of isolation starting with the development of symptoms or a positive test.” After that, the majority of normally healthy children may return to school, participate in extracurricular activities, or visit relatives. Remember that kids cannot “test out” of quarantine from school — the 14-day quarantine is necessary for most local school systems, even if a negative test results in the case of a flu infection. Even if you have recovered from your symptoms, you may still test positive for Covid up to 90 days after receiving it.”

Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure

Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure

LASIK eye surgery is an efficient way to correct refractive errors. Not only is this procedure efficient, but it is also one of the most typical eye surgeries. Moreover, the LASIK eye surgery procedure has evolved over the years with the advancement of technology. The process is also a refined one while patients are continually satisfied with the rendered service. LASIK stands for laser-assisted in situ keratomileuses. It remains a valid procedure and the best option to be free from glasses and contact lenses. 

The LASIK Procedure

The procedure of LASIK is to reshape the cornea while enhancing the other elements of the eyes. This process results in an enhanced vision correction for the significant refractive errors that threaten the eyes. In other words, eye surgery LASIK effectively deals with nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. This method is this effective because you can see significant improvements within 24 hours of completing the procedure. 

The procedure begins with creating a thin flap on the cornea so that the surgeon can reach the inner part of the cornea. Also, it requires the excimer laser, a kind of ultraviolet laser that helps remove a small amount of corneal tissue. Moreover, it creates a flatter or steeper on the cornea, as you need for better vision. At the end of the process, the surgeon replaces the flap, and it heals very fast. 

Pre-surgery diagnosis

LASIK eye surgery is not automatic for everyone with an eye defect. Instead, it requires a thorough examination and evaluation to determine and conclude the need for the procedure. Therefore, as you consider undergoing eye surgery through LASIK technology, you should consult a professional eye doctor to confirm your need for the system.

However, this examination process also involves diagnosing your present eye condition, the nature of the defect, and prescribed glasses or lenses. There is a part of also knowing if you are still within the age range of those who could have the procedure. In addition, the doctor will also examine the thickness and shape of your cornea if it will permit creating a flap on it.

Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure

Other essential qualities of the eye that can determine your suitability for LASIK include pupil size and natural eye moistness. Others also consist of the specific type of refractive error you are experiencing that requires the LASIK procedure. Another vital part of the initial diagnosis is using corneal topographers and wavefront analyzers to create a detailed map of your eyes before the surgery.

The LASIK Procedure Surgery Period

The period of LASIK surgery is usually that of immense efficiency and quickness. Overall, the whole process may not take longer than 10 minutes for each eye. At the beginning of the surgery, you may take a dose of local anesthetic in the form of eye drops that help your body and eye nerves relax. This sedative ensures that you don’t feel any pain during the process and that you don’t interfere. 

Another essential tool is the lid spectrum and a suction ring that helps hold the eyelid in place. The surgeon then makes a small corneal flap with great precision and then matches these adjustments with a standard eyesight prescription. To ensure that the procedure aligns correctly with the standard model, the hospital uses a computer to measure the accuracy. Click here to know about What’s the Difference between SMILE and LASIK Eye Surgery?

Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure

The actual reshaping of your eye cornea during the procedure does not take more than 5 minutes for each eye. Moreover, the surgeon encourages you to fix your eyes on a target while the system takes place. In addition, there is no pain whatsoever during the process except for a slight pressure on your cornea. Also, LASIK eye surgery is a method that clicks perfectly well during the operation period. 

LASIK Recovery

After completing the procedure, the next stage is the quick recovery to continue with life. We already mentioned that the entire surgery does not take more than 20 minutes for both eyes. And you can begin to get the results within a day after the surgery. The first normal thing to do is rest for a short while before you get out of the clinic. 

In addition, the surgeon has to check your condition to ascertain that you are in perfect shape before your official discharge. While some hypothesis proves that you can drive home over 24 hours, our advice is to avoid the immediate stress and arrange a ride to take you home. On the other hand, you can also feel some discomfort, itching, or burning sensation right after your procedure. This feeling is entirely normal and gives no cause for alarm. 

Further still, you may also experience a hazy or blurry vision at first, especially immediately after the surgery. But relax, because all the haziness disappears in the morning and things return to normal. As the days go on, you should also increase in stability quickly and efficiently. Another caution is to avoid any strenuous activity such as lifting or pulling for at least a week. This break is particularly essential for the corneal flap to heal appropriately within the period. 

Moreover, to meet the demands and the peculiarity of LASIK eye surgery, professional institutes have found a way to simplify the surgery procedure. In addition, some patients choose to make their decisions about the price of the LASIK operation. Moreover, amid the different choices of getting your LASIK eye surgery in Australia, personal eyes are the right place to turn and have the best high-quality service. 

Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure


Finally, it is not only about the popularity of LASIK eye surgery. But also about providing answers to every single question, you may have about correcting your refractive error. Moreover, we also offer the ultimate Australian guide to LASIK eye surgery. We are available to answer your questions directly. Meanwhile, the answers are provided by our team of professional doctors with excellent experience in eye surgery through the LASIK procedure. 

LASIK Eye Surgery

What’s the Difference between SMILE and LASIK Eye Surgery?

LASIK and SMILE are eye surgery procedures that are efficient in treating nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. The processes free you from reaching for your glasses or contact lens before getting a good vision. In addition, patients can for once begin to discern the best choice of laser surgery without wasting time, money, and other resources. Moreover, it would help to learn the core differences between SMILE and LASIK eye surgery.

Laser vision surgery generally has improved in giant leaps and bounds in the last few years. Similarly, it continued to improve technology, system, personnel, speed, convenience, and efficiency. It is now at a level that we can regard as the advanced phase where life-changing effects can make all the difference the patient envisions. The use of SMILE refractive technology has also adequately surpassed one million procedures across the world. 

Definition of LASIK and SMILE Eye Surgery Procedures

LASIK, also known as the Laser-Assisted Stromal In-Situ Keratomileusis, is the most ordinary procedure you can perform with the leading media technology. It is an efficient method to treat several eye problems that affect the vision, such as farsightedness, nearsightedness, and astigmatism. 

What's the Difference between SMILE and LASIK Eye Surgery?

Meanwhile, this process involves two significant steps using the excimer laser technology. The first step is to remove a thin layer (flap) of the corneal tissue as a preparatory step. Following that removal, the second excimer laser is used to reshape the cornea to correct the patient’s vision. 

On the other hand, SMILE (Small Incision Lenticule Extraction) is the FDA’s latest approved medical procedure or method. Moreover, it is also an efficient method to improve your vision using laser technology. However, this procedure can only sufficiently treat mild nearsightedness and is inefficient in treating farsightedness and astigmatism. 

In addition, SMILE uses only a femtosecond laser, which creates a tiny incision on the cornea. More so, it now removes tiny amounts of the corneal tissue to reshape the patient’s cornea and improve vision. So, the next question is, what the difference between these two methods is?

What's the Difference between SMILE and LASIK Eye Surgery?

Differences between LASIK and SMILE Eye Surgery Procedure 

In terms of the similarity between SMILE and LASIK, both procedures are minimally invasive on the patient. Moreover, the SMILE procedure is even less invasive than LASIK. It makes it comfortable to undergo for patients who may otherwise have reservations. In addition, as an eye treatment method, SMILE uses a single laser method to make a small incision on your corneal tissue.

Afterward, it removes a tiny amount of the cornea tissue that we refer to as the lenticule to achieve the best vision results. On the other hand, the LASIK procedure has two phases: first, cutting a flap off the cornea tissue using laser technology. And then, the second layer, known as the excimer laser, makes all the necessary changes of reshaping the corneal tissue to improve the vision.

While both procedures can produce similar results, what makes the difference is the kind of patient they work more efficiently for. For instance, a patient with nearsightedness or myopia can make use of either SMILE or LASIK. However, when a patient is suffering from hyperopia (farsightedness) or astigmatism, only LASIK surgery can correct these refractive errors.

Furthermore, some doctors believe that the cornea is biomechanically stronger because the SMILE procedure only involves a smaller incision. As a result, patients may experience less dry eyes after eye surgery. This opportunity can sound well enough to anyone that would like to undergo corrective surgery. Moreover, it is also good news to anyone who does not qualify to undergo LASIK surgery.

What's the Difference between SMILE and LASIK Eye Surgery?

Which Laser Correction is the Best?

Identifying the best laser eye correction procedure is not as simple as it sounds. For instance, you cannot simply boil it down to the issue of price or the most common; there is more. For example, the patient must first undergo a check to ascertain the nature of the eye defect and other essential qualities such as the thickness of the cornea tissue. These factors all contribute to deciding on which of the laser correction procedures is most suitable.

Therefore, you see that the best laser correction procedure is not necessarily the most common or the cheapest, but the most suitable. In addition, the clinic that offers eye surgery with LASIK, for instance, also needs to be verified to learn the quality of service they are capable of rendering. Another essential feature to know about is the kind of medical technology instruments at the disposal of the eye clinic. Afterward, learn about the particular surgeon in charge of the surgery. Visit to read about Why LASIK is a Popular Corrective Eye Surgery Procedure.

In general, doctors usually recommend laser eye surgery when a patient is subject to the following common factors:

  • Existing prescription for managing the eye defect
  • Previous injuries and subsequent surgeries involving the eyes
  • The condition or health of the eyes
  • General health

Therefore, the assurance of the best laser eye surgery option is not a puzzle that can be done with a guess. It requires a deliberate action following a complete examination by a professional eye doctor. More so, the patient can do well in some online research on the best procedures out there and why. In addition, you can relate it to any previous diagnosis that you have on different eye defects and how to overcome them. 

Which one should you choose?

Eventually, the whole essence of this article will come down to your choice among the two options. The exemplary laser eye operation depends on the peculiar circumstance and needs of the individual patient. Personal Eye Care is a crucial platform for excellent eye surgery using either the LASIK or the SMILE procedure. 


On a final note, Personal Eye Care is a fantastic place to get some of Australia’s most advanced medical technology. In addition, we have the best hands when it comes to medical expertise and specialization in treating the eyes. And we are available to attend to your needs right away. Feel free to schedule an appointment or make an inquiry through our online channels. 

Somatoform Disorders

Current Debates

“Somatoform Disorders” were defined in the International Classification of Diseases 35 years ago, in the DSM-IV in 1994, and again in the DSM-IV TR in 2000.  In those volumes, “Somatoform Disorders” is a category with a broad definition, and there are six different “somatoform” labels doctors can choose from within that category . . .

  • Hypochondriasis
  • Pain Disorder
  • Somatization Disorder
  • Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Conversion Disorder
  • Somatoform Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

. . . though it is not uncommon for doctors to use the phrase “Somatoform Disorder” in a general way that is described best with the very loose criteria for “Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder”.

In recent years there has been a consensus that those definitions need to be revised and controversy about the right way to revise them has been heated, to say the least.  The new DSM edition came out in May of 2013 – the “DSM-5” – amid sharp criticism about the proliferation of new mental disorders in general.

The category of “Somatoform Disorders” was revised to “Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders”, with “Somatic Symptom Disorder” taking the place of the first four old labels: “Hypochondriasis”, “Pain disorder”, “Somatization Disorder” and “Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder”.

Revisions for the ICD-11 are in the works but will not be published till at least 2016.

For those concerned about the problem of denial of care, the new “Somatic Symptom Disorder” is alarming on a number of counts, not the least of which is the decision to go ahead and publish it amid immense resistance and criticism from patient advocacy groups, from within the psychiatric community, and from the public at large.  Proposed changes for the ICD’s upcoming edition are at least equally worrisome, if not more so.

There is no question that Somatic Symptom Disorder and prospects for ICD revisions are a great deal more threatening to patients’ right to available medical care than Somatoform Disorder ever was.  Moreover, it is clear that patients’ rights to full disclosure, informed consent, and autonomy are actually directly targeted in some revisions and proposals for the expressed purpose of making those presumed to have Somatoform Disorders easier to “manage”.

For anyone concerned about the problem of denial of care, the new definitions and proposals are nothing short of alarming.

Still, the Coalition for Diagnostic Rights sees value in the conversation that has begun as a result of the revision process.

  • Every time someone expresses concern about the recklessness of new definitions, they also contribute in a detailed way to our common understanding of what these kinds of diagnoses really amount to.
  • Every time we see what risks we create with a new approach we come closer to understanding exactly how we’ve arrived at where we stand today – how it could possibly have come to seem insignificant to the medical community that most of the 30 million rare disease patients, and almost half of the 50 million US autoimmune disease patients in the US are now mistakenly denied medical care as a matter of course.
  • Every time we disagree about how to revise these diagnostic standards we come closer to really taking in the unfathomable numbers of patients across the globe who suffer without treatment at this very moment for no other reason than that we’ve been reckless about error in Somatoform diagnosis.

In these four Current Debates pages, you will find clarification of recent debates and developments related to the revision of “Somatoform Disorders”, with links all along the way so you can read for yourself what is being summarized here.  We will soon expand these summaries and will continue to update them.  We recognize that our broad overview is in no way comprehensive and sometimes skirts the details for the sake of overall clarity.  As always, the Coalition for Diagnostic Rights welcomes your corrections and suggestions for improvements.

Recommended Reading :

Karina Hansen’s Painful Fight for Justice

Involuntary detainment for the purpose of denying medical care is increasingly common for patients with vague, unclear, or “contentious” diagnoses like ME – a strong sign that the “Somatoform Wars” has reached a dangerous pitch.  To fight for Karina, and to fight this growing threat generally, it’s important to be clear about exactly how rights have been violated.

1. Early Facts

Karina Hansen, a twenty-five-year-old Danish woman, has been disabled for many years by severe Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, an extremely painful neuro-immune condition long recognized by the World Health Organization. Psychiatric evaluations in her case reveal a perfectly clean bill of mental health repeatedly.  In 2012 psychiatrists with the Danish national health system pressured Karina and her family to accept inpatient treatment at the Hammel Neuro center, where they believe all ME patients require mental health treatment rather than medical treatment.

Opting for the opinion of her doctors instead, Ms. Hansen declined Hammel’s dual treatment program of “Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy” and “Graded Exercise Therapy”, having found in the past that this approach greatly worsened her symptoms.  Her primary care doctor agreed with this decision as one she had the capacity to make and refused to sign involuntary treatment papers when requested to do so by Hammel psychiatrists.  In keeping with Karina’s right to informed consent, her autonomous wishes as a patient were respected by the psychiatrists and social workers, as the patient was found to be mentally competent by the Danish medical officer in the case.

2. Initial Events

In February 2013 respect for Karina Hansen’s autonomy was overturned, when five police officers arrived at the Hansen home with a collection of doctors and social workers. Physically blocking her parents, the police forcibly removed Karina from her bed as she protested to the fullest extent her illness would allow.

Once strapped onto a gurney, Karina was transported by ambulance for involuntary treatment at the Hammel Neuro center in Aarhus, frantically calling and texting messages pleading for rescue until her strength ran out and her phone lost charge, the last an emergency call to the police.

After she was removed the home was examined and photographed in detail, including the contents of the refrigerator and medicine cabinet, in an apparent effort to support claims of medical abuse, or “over-medicalization” against Karina’s mother, who cared for her full time.  The photographs lent no support to such claims, and the idea of medical abuse was dropped.

Karina gave her parents legal power of attorney after the 2012 incident, but they have never been informed as to the basis on which Karina’s right to make autonomous medical decisions was overturned.  It remains entirely unclear how it could be legal for Hammel or Court to ignore a legal power of attorney signed by a patient overtly verified to be legally competent.

The treatment program at Hammel was developed at The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics nearby, by the same psychiatrists involved in, and advising on, Karina’s care.  The program is administered by psychiatrists, and it stipulates the withdrawal of medications in favor of mental health therapy, but it presents itself as a medical treatment rather than psychiatric treatment, and its website states that its patients are “not mentally ill”.

It is grossly unethical to treat a patient medically against her will.  Refusal of treatment is a universally accepted patients’ right, and a human right protected by the European Convention on Human Rights.  For this reason, Karina Hansen’s forcible treatment is an egregious human rights violation no matter what her diagnosis and optimal treatment might be.

3. Current Conditions

Karina has been held against her will without medical care for an established diagnosis of the neurological disorder myalgic encephalomyelitis for fourteen months now, against the wishes of her general practitioner, who resigned in reaction to her case.  During this time she has endured a forced mental health treatment program she rejected on record in 2012 when established to be legally competent.  This approach to ME directly conflicts with the World Health Organization’s classification of the disease.

Tasked by the Danish government with overseeing the care of the country’s ME patients, the Clinic program followed at Hammel describes the severe pain endured by ME sufferers in its brochures as a “bothersome” symptom lacking a medical cause.

Karina has not been permitted to consult with her own attorney to demand respect for her rights to medical treatment and freedom.  Because she is forced to endure daily activities known to worsen her condition (among them is probably “graded exercise therapy”), it is unlikely she would have the strength to participate in a legal battle at this time.

Karina’s doctors of choice have been prohibited from involvement in her care because they feel she needs medical treatment rather than mental health care.  An international ME expert concerned about her case has offered to come to Denmark to assist (at the expense of a patient support organization), but he has been rejected.

Because Karina’s parents disagree with her treatment, she is not permitted to see or speak with them, though they continue to fight for her freedom.  Karina’s sister, a nurse who’s cared for her in the past, was permitted a visit in April 2013, when she agreed to overtly support the current treatment approach, but she found herself unable to keep from breaking down in tears when she saw how severely Karina had declined. She reports that Karina is too severely ill to communicate, and did not seem to recognize her sister.

4. Matters of Human Rights

The CDR is a medical organization focused on ethics, so our concerns always center on a patient’s rights – especially the right of an ill patient to medical care from her doctor.  While patients’ rights are indeed a special kind of human rights, there are also central human rights issues that arise in a case like this, and it’s important to acknowledge those directly at the outset.

In any democratic society, there are provisions in place to ensure multiple voices are heard when decisions must be made for those who cannot make decisions for themselves.  These include:

  1. Prior determinations of wishes on record.
  2. Legal power of attorney, that is, someone specified by a patient who will make sure her medical wishes are known and respected in the event that she is unable to speak for herself.
  3. Choice of attorney.  Patients with Karina’s foresight and intelligence secure an attorney when there seems to be a threat of forcible treatment looming.  The attorney, along with the legal power of attorney, ensure that doctors can never tyrannically dictate the course of a patient’s life when she becomes incapacitated.

In Karina’s case, however

  1. Medical wishes on record were overridden when compliance was forced through the physical strength of five police officers.  At this time there still has been no date set for a hearing on the legality of Karina’s forcible detainment and treatment.  After fourteen months of detainment without medications for excruciating pain, clearly this violates Karina’s right to due process.
  2. The authority of Karina’s legal power of attorney, her parents, to make decisions on her behalf has been ignored by Hammel, and that egregious violation of rights has been supported by the Court.  The appointment of a guardian who accepts her forcible detainment and withdrawal of medications in no way mitigates the seriousness of this act on the part of the Court.  It is a clear violation of rights for a dissenting legal power of attorney to be silenced in favor of a new appointment who does not express dissent against the Court’s opinions.
  3. Karina’s choice of attorney has been ignored by the court.  Her inability to organize and express her desire to see her attorney, or her desire to fight for her rights, has been caused by Hemmel’s own actions and cannot justly be construed as assent.

The details of Karina’s world – the roles of her doctors, her parents, and her lawyers – have been dictated by her psychiatrist to an extent that is truly staggering, in a way that very clearly violates fundamental human rights.  Moreover, her psychiatrist has taken the extra step of barring visitation and phone conversations with all those who disagree with forcible detainment and withdrawal of medications.  Yet again, the court has granted him this indefensible level of authority.  While in cases of involuntary treatment for psychiatric illness psychiatrists do have the power to determine visitation, Hammel’s claim to a medical approach makes it impossible to defend this intrusion into the personal relationships of a patient.

It is the view of the Coalition that human rights violations in the case of Karina Hansen urgently require, and clearly deserve, immediate remedy on the part of the Danish government.  Moreover, these violations warrant action on the part of human rights watchdogs because, while such organizations generally prefer not to interfere in individual medical or mental health cases, it cannot be reasonable for injustice to stand merely because it is perpetrated upon a patient.  Every case where human rights are violated to this extent, and with this degree of clarity, cries out for action on the part of the human rights community.

You can read a good post about RAT, rapid covid testing at


Ten rights violations that will not be tolerated


Justina Pelletier had a right to a surrogate decision-maker the instant BCH felt parental authority should be overridden. She was flagrantly denied that right for two months, while BCH made her medical decisions without consulting DCF.


The Court challenges the safety of the parents’ decisions on the basis of their disagreement with doctors at BCH, but also on the basis of failing to disagree with doctors at Tufts. That is a contradictory standard no parent could ever meet.


The Court has no right to choose between conflicting medical opinions on behalf of a child until there’s evidence of parents’ unsafe decision making – but without choosing which opinion is right there is no such evidence.


According to the ACLU, when the ability to consent to treatment is established, so is the ability to refuse consent. Linda Pelletier’s ability to consent was established when BCH doctors asked for her signature on their new care plan on February 13 – then it was challenged solely on the basis of refusal to consent.


The Pelletiers’ inclination to resist withdrawing their daughter’s standing medical treatments was a natural and appropriate product of good instinct about their obligation to provide necessary medical care.


The evidence the Pelletiers received from BCH about their daughter’s diagnosis of somatoform disorder was not sufficient to overturn any good parent’s instinct to continue to provide their child with established necessary medical care.


In insisting their daughter should be treated according to her established care plan, the Pelletiers abided by legal requirements and precedents set for parental decision-making, all of which obligate parents not to refuse necessary medical care.


Even if the Pelletiers are guilty of child abuse they have a right to a detailed explanation of the basis on which their right to make medical decisions for their child has been eliminated by the Court.


Even if the Pelletiers are guilty of medical child abuse the Court has an obligation to prepare and present an explanation for accepting the continued demand of Boston Children’s Hospital to treat Justina Pelletier in a locked inpatient psychiatric facility rather than in an outpatient setting.


Bader 5’s aggressive behavior modification for somatoform children is an atrocity because the somatoform diagnosis can never be certain, and emotional damage results when children are punished for real medical symptoms. With a somatoform diagnosis in dispute, it is unconscionable to place Justina in any facility that takes that approach.

The Coalition for Diagnostic Rights eradicating the practice of denial of care
see a full explanation of how each of these tights has been vloktt: